## XGSLab (OVER AND UNDER GROUND SYSTEM Laboratory)

XGSLab (Over and Under Ground System Laboratory) is one of the most powerful software packages for grounding system analysis, electromagnetic fields, interference and lightning analysis and **the only software on the market that takes into account both EN and IEEE Standards.**

XGSLab includes the modules:

**GSA** (GROUNDING SYSTEM ANALYSIS) for regular application (applicable in most practical cases).

**GSA_FD** (GROUNDING SYSTEM ANALYSIS in the FREQUENCY DOMAIN) for electromagnetic fields and interference evaluations for overhead and underground systems and for fault current distribution calculations.

**XGSA_FD** (OVER AND UNDER GROUND SYSTEM ANALYSIS in the FREQUENCY DOMAIN) for electromagnetic fields and interference evaluations for overhead and underground systems and for lightning effects and fault current distribution calculations.

**XGSA_TD** (OVER AND UNDERGROUND SYSTEM ANALYSIS in the TIME DOMAIN) for general applications with overhead and underground systems.

All modules are integrated in an “all in one” package and based on a hybrid calculation method (or “PEEC” method) which considers transmission line, circuit and electromagnetic theory combined into a single calculation model.

Hybrid methods join the strong points of the other methods and are well suited for engineering purposes because they allow the analysis of complex scenarios including external parameters such as voltages, currents and impedances. For these reasons, XGSLab can be considered a real laboratory.

**APPLICATIONS**

The following table summarizes the main applications of the available models.

Application |
GSA |
GSA_FD |
XGSA_FD |

Grounding (small systems) | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Grounding (large systems) | No | Yes | Yes |

Cathodic Protection Systems | No | Yes | Yes |

Magnetic Field | No | Yes | Yes |

Electric Field | No | No | Yes |

Electromagnetic Interferences | No | Yes | Yes |

Fault Current Distribution | No | No | Yes |

Lightning effects for a single frequency | No | No | Yes |

XGSA_TD can be applied in order to analyse in the time domain current and potential distribution on underground and/or overhead conductors network energized by means current or voltage transient and can calculate the consequent distributions of earth surface potentials and electric and magnetic fields.

### GSA

- Is a widely utilized and recognized module for earth grid calculations and design including soil analysis.
- Can analyse the low frequency performance of grounding systems composed by many distinct electrodes of any shape into a uniform or double layered soil model.
- Can import earth grid data from AutoCAD® files, delivering professional numerical and graphical output useful for investigation of GPR and leakage current, surface potential, touch and step voltage distributions.

### GSA_FD

- Is a module for earth grid calculation and design in the frequency domain, including soil analysis and represents the state of the art of grounding software.
- Is also useful for magnetic field and electromagnetic interference evaluations.
- Represents a new way to study large grounding systems. Experience shows that with large electrodes, the horizontal variation of the soil resistivity makes inefficient the use of sophisticated soil models (multilayer) how competitors do. In these cases, the use of more sophisticated electric model of the electrodes is preferable because the circuit parameters, as self and mutual impedances, can be known better than the soil resistivity value. In fact, in the frequencies range we are interested in, these circuit parameters depend weakly on the soil properties.
**Takes into account self and mutual impedance effects**, therefore overcoming the equipotential condition of the electrodes on which standard GSA is based.

This allows the analysis of electrodes whose size is comparable with the wavelength as better specified in the following. Competitor packages usually do not take into account the mutual impedance effects thus leading, in some particular conditions, to significant errors.- Can be used in the frequency domain range from 0 to 1 MHz. Starting from 1 MHz calculation accuracy gradually decreases.
- Can analyse grounding systems composed by many distinct electrodes of any shape, size and kind of conductor (solid, hollow or stranded and coated or bare) into a uniform or double layered soil model.
- Similarly to GSA, GSA_FD can also import earth grid data from AutoCAD® files delivering professional numerical and graphical output useful for investigation of GPR and potential, current, leakage current, surface potential, touch and step voltage distributions.
- Can also calculate magnetic fields due to grounding systems or cable, and electromagnetic interference (induced current and potential due to resistive, capacitive and inductive coupling) between grounding systems or cable and pipeline or buried electrodes in general.

### XGSA_FD

- XGSA_FD is a completely new module which extends the GSA_FD application field to the aerial systems.
- XGSA_FD can also manage catenary conductors and bundle conductors too and can take into account sources where potential and longitudinal current are known and independent by other conditions.
**For these reasons XGSA_FD is probably one of the most powerful and multipurpose tools on the market for these kind of calculations**. - In addition to GSA_FD, XGSA_FD can calculate electromagnetic fields and interference between overhead systems and between overhead and underground systems, can calculate the effects of lightning and also fault current distribution.
- XGSA_FD calculation model is directly derived from GSA_FD and its application limits can be considered the same.

### XGSA_TD

- XGSA_TD Is a completely new module which extends the XGSA_FD application field to the time domain.
- In this regard, XGSA_FD uses the so called “frequency domain approach”. As known, a transient can be considered as the superposition of many single frequency waveform calculated with the forward Fourier transform.
- Using the frequency domain model implemented in XGSA_FD it is then possible calculate a response for each of these single frequency waveform.
- The resulting time domain response can be obtained by applying the inverse Fourier transform to all these response.

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